In many cases the answer is yes, although household items will work better.
Doilies, afghans, rectangular place mats and even small amigurumi animals can simply be worked as written in the original pattern, but using much finer thread and hooks. In the case of doilies, if the original pattern requires No 10 crochet cotton and a 1.50 mm or 1.65 mm hook, then simply substitute No 70 or 80 crochet cotton and a 0.60 mm or 0.75 mm hook for the originals. The miniaturised item will be approximately half the size of the original, as can be seen in the photo above.
If you are not used to working with fine thread and small hooks, it is best to work slowly and if possible work with progressively finer hooks and yarn, until you are confident using the fine yarn and small hooks. It may also help to have good light and maybe a cloth on your lap which shows up the stitches well (for example a dark coloured cloth will show up stitches made in a light colour). Take things slowly at first and maybe work 2 or 3 rows/rounds at a time until you feel confident enough to work more in a session.
Clothing is much more difficult to miniaturise from full size patterns. Bags, hats and scarves may work, but many other clothes will look wrong, as the stitches look too big, no matter how small you work them.
Basically it is trial and error, some things will work and look good, others won’t.
If you wish to try working the doily shown in the photo above, the free pattern may be downloaded from our Ravelry store here, with a choice of UK or US crochet terminology